1. Formula feeding
In the absence of breast milk, formula feeding is a better choice, especially breast milk formula. At present, there are many kinds of formula milk in the market, so we should choose the formula milk with guaranteed “brand”. Some formula milk is fortified with calcium, iron and vitamin D. when preparing formula milk, you must carefully read the instructions and do not mix it at will. Although the baby has certain digestive ability, too thick mixing will increase the burden of digestion, and too thin mixing will affect the baby’s growth and development. The correct proportion should be adjusted according to the proportion of the packaging instructions, and then adjusted according to the baby’s weight, mood, excretion, sleep, etc.
The scale on the bottle refers to the number of milliliters. If you add milk powder to the 50ml scale and add water to the 200ml scale, you will make 200ml milk. This kind of milk is also called whole milk. Babies with good digestion can try whole milk.
Compared with breast-feeding, mixing milk powder seems a little troublesome, especially at night. Before washing, hungry children will cry. At this time, the hurried milk is very hot and children can’t eat it immediately. The use of formula milk should be kept properly, otherwise its quality will be affected. It shall be stored in a dry, ventilated and dark place, and the temperature shall not exceed 15 ℃.
2. Milk feeding
Milk contains three times higher protein and calcium than breast milk. Although it is rich in nutrition, it is not suitable for infants’ digestive ability, especially newborns. The fat contained in milk is mostly saturated fatty acids. The fat ball is large and there is no lipolytic enzyme. It is difficult to digest and absorb. Milk contains less lactose. When feeding, 5-8% sugar should be added. The mineral composition is high, which not only reduces the gastric acid, but also aggravates the renal load, which is not conducive to newborns, premature infants and infants with poor renal function. Therefore, milk needs to be diluted, boiled and sweetened to adjust its shortcomings.
Newborns 1-2 weeks after birth can first feed 2:1 milk, that is, 2 parts of fresh milk and 1 part of water, and then gradually increase the concentration. After the full moon, if the child has good digestion ability and normal stool, he can feed whole milk directly.
Calculation of milk volume: the daily energy required by infants is 100-120kcal / kg and the water required is 150ml / kg. 100ml milk with 8% sugar can supply 100kcal of energy.
3. Goat milk feeding
The composition of goat’s milk is similar to that of milk, with a little more protein and fat, especially albumin, so the clot is fine, the fat ball is small and easy to digest. Because of its low folate content and low vitamin B12, children fed with goat milk should add folate and vitamin B12, otherwise megaloblastic anemia can be caused.
4. Mixed feeding
While breastfeeding, milk substitutes are also used to feed infants. This method can be selected when the breast milk secretion is insufficient or the breast milk cannot be completely fed for other reasons. Mixed feeding can supplement the insufficient part of breast milk after each breast feeding, or it can be completely fed with milk substitutes once or several times a day. However, it should be noted that mothers should not give up breastfeeding due to lack of breast milk. They should insist on breastfeeding their babies for at least 6 months and then fully use milk substitutes. Mixed feeding is better than artificial feeding alone, and is more conducive to the healthy growth of infants than artificial feeding.
5. Add cod liver oil
Whether breastfed or artificially fed children, if they have not been injected with vitamin D after birth, cod liver oil should be added in time at 3-4 weeks to prevent rickets. Because food (milk) contains less vitamin D, and there are basically no outdoor activities in the neonatal period, children are not exposed to the sun, so they are prone to rickets, crying, sweating, easy to scare and other symptoms. At present, there are two types of cod liver oil. One is ordinary cod liver oil, which contains 5000 international units of vitamin D and 50000 international units of vitamin A per ml. taking this kind of cod liver oil for a long time will cause vitamin A poisoning and cause certain harm to children; The other is new cod liver oil, which reduces the content of vitamin A and reduces the possibility of vitamin A poisoning. No matter what kind of cod liver oil is, it should not be taken for a long time, because once poisoning occurs, the child has no specific symptoms and cannot be found early. The safest and most effective way is to let children bask in the sun and do more outdoor activities.
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