premature delivery

Causes of premature delivery

There are many reasons for premature delivery, and the reasons vary according to the early, middle and late stages.

1. Chorionic amniotic infection is an important cause of premature delivery. The source of infection is the microorganism in the cervix and vagina, partly from intrauterine infection. Infection is also an important factor leading to premature rupture of membranes. Premature birth often occurs with premature rupture of membranes.

2. Twins or multiple pregnancies, excessive amniotic fluid can increase intrauterine pressure, early labor and premature delivery.

3. During the second trimester of pregnancy, the cervical orifice is dilated passively, the amniotic sac bulges toward the cervical canal, and the membrane ruptures due to the change of tension, and premature rupture of membranes occurs.

4, uterine malformation is due to uterine dysplasia leading to late abortion or premature delivery.

In addition, preterm labor is also closely related to pregnancy complications, pregnancy complications, pregnancy fatigue and turbulence, endocrine disorders, smoking, drinking, drug abuse and so on.

Symptoms of premature delivery

If there is premature labor, there will be some obvious physiological symptoms, such as abdominal rigidity, bleeding, etc. Pregnant mothers should pay more attention to their bodies to prevent premature birth.

The lower abdomen hardens. After the eighth month, when the lower abdomen becomes soft and stiff repeatedly and the muscles feel stiff and bloated, keep quiet first and go to the hospital as soon as possible for examination.

Bleeding. A small amount of bleeding is one of the markers of labor, but sometimes from the genital organs bleeding, which has the risk of abnormal labor, can be local use of clean gauze, degreased cotton, toilet paper mat hemostasis.

Break water. Something like warm water outflows early water. Some pregnant women can give birth safely in a few weeks even if they break the water early, but usually the pains begin immediately after breaking the water. At this time, the waist can be padded high, do not move the abdomen, and go to the hospital immediately.

Uterine contraction is also the earliest sign of premature delivery. During pregnancy, the uterus is usually flabby. During the second trimester of pregnancy, the uterus may contract three to five times a day. At this time, pregnant women will feel the stomach hard, but there is no pain feeling, generally thin pregnant women feel obvious, this is a physiological contraction. But if the frequency of contraction is too frequent, to reach more than 3-4 times an hour, it is not physiological, to go to the hospital as soon as possible.

It is difficult for pregnant women to judge premature birth contractions. If there are two or more than two types of preterm birth symptoms, call the health care practitioner.

1, abnormal uterine contraction, frequent regularity of official contraction (more than 5 hours per hour, lasting for two hours or more).

2, lower abdominal spasmodic pain.

3, the lower part of the back is dull.

4, the lower abdomen and thigh pressure increased (pelvic cavity heavy).

5, bowel movement is faster than usual and diarrhea.

6. Increase or abnormality of vaginal secretions (especially when the secretions are watery, mucous, or accompanied by light blood color).

How to prevent premature delivery

Infection is a very important reason for premature delivery. Pregnant mothers must pay attention to guard against infection. In addition, there are fatigue, excessive amniotic fluid, constipation and other factors may cause premature delivery, expectant mothers in various periods of pregnancy can not relax vigilance.

1, treatment of reproductive tract infections

When suffering from genital tract infections, doctors should be promptly asked for treatment.

2, avoid fatigue and external stimulation.

It is better not to travel long distances during the third trimester of pregnancy to avoid bumps and fatigue; do not go to crowded places to avoid touching the abdomen; walk, especially when walking up and down stairs, must pay attention to step by step steadily; do not continue to stand or squat for a long time; in the third trimester, sex must be prohibited.

3, maintain a good living condition

During pregnancy, pregnant women should pay attention to improving the living environment, reducing labor intensity and increasing rest time; the greater the psychological stress of pregnant women, the higher the incidence of premature delivery, especially tension, anxiety and depression and premature delivery are closely related. Therefore, pregnant women should maintain peace of mind, eliminate tension, avoid adverse mental stimulation; to take reasonable and adequate nutrition, late pregnancy should be more bed rest, and take the left lateral decubitus, reduce the pressure of uterine cavity to the cervical orifice.

4, pay attention to your health.

If pregnant women suffer from heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension and other complications, should actively cooperate with the doctor treatment; pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, twin or multiple pregnancy, placenta previa, hydramnios and other conditions of pregnant women, must comply with medical advice, actively do a good job of health care during pregnancy, timely detection of abnormalities, and do everything possible Early medical treatment.

5, vigilance of cervical relaxation

Cervical cerclage was performed at 16 to 20 weeks of gestation (before the first gestational week of preterm delivery) in women with cervical relaxation and preterm delivery.

6, prevent excessive amniotic fluid

When hearing about oligohydramnios, expectant mothers will worry about the fetal growth retardation, fear of overdue pregnancy, more fear of fetal malformation. But too much amniotic fluid can easily lead to excessive uterine tension and premature birth.

In addition to gestational diabetes, moderate anemia, and mothers-to-be who like to eat sweets and do not like to exercise may have excessive amniotic fluid, fetal neural tube defects and hemolysis problems of expectant mothers, but also prone to this problem, so in addition to regular perinatal health care, once expectant mothers feel difficult to breathe, fatigue, panic, early arrival How much is the hospital doing B-mode ultrasound examination of amniotic fluid?

After excluding fetal malformations and other problems, once the mother-to-be excessive amniotic fluid, in addition to active treatment of the primary disease, more bed rest, when necessary, can be taken in the middle and late stages of pregnancy to pump amniotic fluid treatment, reduce the amount of amniotic fluid, in order to avoid long-term respiratory discomfort, or even cause fetal hypoxia, premature delivery and so on.

7, 32 weeks after the prohibition of sexual life, constipation prevention

Healthy mothers-to-be can have sex in the early, middle and late weeks of pregnancy, but after 32 weeks, be sure to ban sex. Hu Mengcai said that this is not only to prevent infection of gynecological inflammation, but also to avoid abdominal pressure or too strong stimulation caused by uterine contraction, which leads to premature delivery.

In addition, expectant mothers, especially those at high risk of preterm birth, such as gestational hypertension, diabetes, twins and multiple births, should pay more attention to the following aspects:

(1) Comprehensive nutrition, drink more milk, eat animal liver, if necessary supplement of iron, calcium and other preparations to prevent iron, copper and other trace elements deficiency caused premature delivery.

(2) avoid strenuous activities, especially to do less stoop and so on to increase abdominal pressure.

(3) To prevent constipation, drinking honey water, eating fresh vegetables and fruits rich in dietary fiber, in order to avoid difficult defecation induced premature delivery.

(4) left lateral position to avoid uterine contraction.

Diet to prevent premature delivery

Preventing preterm labor, mothers-to-be avoid fennel, pepper, pepper, cinnamon, pepper, garlic and other hot spices. Hawthorn should also be eaten less, because Hawthorn can accelerate the contraction of the uterus, leading to premature delivery.

Pregnant women should not take too much vitamin A, which can lead to premature labor and incomplete fetal development. Pig liver contains extremely rich vitamin A, avoid excessive eating; Auricularia auricula has the function of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, is not conducive to the stability and growth of embryos, avoid eating; apricot taste acidic heat, and fetal sliding effect, for pregnant women taboo to eat slippery products; bracts on uterine muscles have exciting effect, can promote uterine contraction, thus inducing premature delivery It is possible that purslane is cold and smooth, and has obvious stimulant effect on the uterus, which is easy to cause premature delivery.

Fish is the best food for preventing premature birth. The survey found that pregnant women who eat fish once a week during pregnancy are only 1.9% more likely to give birth to premature birth, while pregnant women who never eat fish are more likely to do so.

Spinach is the best protective vegetable. In the first 2 months of pregnancy, you should eat spinach or Folic Acid Tablets. But spinach also contains oxalic acid, oxalic acid can interfere with human body to iron, zinc and other trace elements absorption, can be put into boiled water to boil spinach, then most of the oxalic acid is destroyed.

In addition, lotus seeds are most effective in preventing premature delivery, abortion and maternal waist acid.

Preterm high risk group

Pregnant women who have a history of premature delivery, have multiple pregnancies, or have frequent vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are all high-risk groups for premature delivery. More attention should be paid to rest and observe the number of uterine contractions.

As for pregnant women with diabetes, hypertension, and even pregnancy-induced hypertension should pay more attention to diet control and medication, if necessary, early hospitalization, control the possible complications and prolong the number of gestational weeks. Some pregnant women with heavy workload, or physical, mental stress load, should also be in bed more rest during pregnancy. Because many reports have shown that too much physical or pressure overload can lead to premature labor.

A balanced diet is the best nutritional supplement during pregnancy or confinement, and the fetus does not grow very fast because the mother eats high-protein foods or certain special vitamins or minerals. It is not only beneficial to the fetus, but also helpful to control the weight of pregnant women, peristalsis of digestive tract and defecation.

Sometimes fall can cause pain, but not abortion or premature delivery, if after 2 to 3 days without any abnormalities, that is, everything is safe and sound, because amniotic fluid plays a role in relieving emergency and protecting the fetus.

What are the dangers of premature delivery?

If the fetal lung is not yet mature in preterm birth, premature infants can not well expand the lungs after birth, will occur dyspnea, serious, can occur death. Premature infants with immature liver development, liver enzyme system development is not perfect, lack of vitamin K, it is easy to cause bleeding.

Premature babies have hypoplasia of the body temperature center, less subcutaneous fat, relatively large body surface area, temperature rise and fall with the changes of external environment, generally lower body temperature, if not pay attention to warm, can occur scleredema, pulmonary hemorrhage and other serious problems.

Premature babies are prone to jaundice and sometimes can be very heavy. Their sucking ability is poor, feeding is more difficult, and hypoglycemia can occur.

Nursing care of premature infants

1. Pay attention to keep warm: indoor temperature should be maintained at 20-25 C, bedding temperature should be maintained at 30-32 C, the room should often open the window to air. Change your diaper quickly and don’t cool your child. When the weight is less than 2.5 kg, do not take a bath, can use edible oil every 2 to 3 days to wipe the baby’s neck, armpit, thigh root and other wrinkles. If the body weight is above 3 kg, and when the milk reaches 100 milliliters, it can be bathed in the same way as healthy newborns.

2, careful feeding: premature weight gain is fast, nutrition supply should be timely, preferably breastfeeding. When I was in hospital, my mother squeezed the milk and fed it to the nurse. The amount of milk eaten can be determined according to the weight of the child. Generally speaking, it takes 150-180 ml per kg of body weight per day. Infants weighing 2.5 kg can be fed 350-450 ml per day. The frequency of lactation is 7~9 times a day or breastfeeding on demand.

3. Prevention of infection: In addition to the special care of children, it is best not to let other people into the room of premature infants, not to take the children to relatives and neighbors from outside. People who take care of their children should change into clean clothes and wash their hands when feeding them or doing other things.

4. Keep quiet: The room of premature infants should be quiet and clean, the movement of entering the room of premature infants should be gentle, changing diapers, feeding should be very gentle and agile, not loud noise, or make other harsh sounds, so as not to frighten the baby.

What examinations should be made for premature babies?

1. Blood glucose test

Blood glucose tests can be performed to detect premature infants’ symptoms of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

2. EEG examination

Some premature infants are prone to intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which can be diagnosed by brain dot map.

3, CT examination

We can observe whether there are signs of intracranial lesions in preterm infants.

4. Antigen antibody